I am an environmental physiologist with an interest in understanding the molecular, biochemical and physiological mechanisms that underlie an animal's capacity to cope with environmental change. I am fascinated by the diversity of physiological specializations (or strategies) used by animals to tolerate particular habitats that others would find very challenging. This interest has led my research to investigate how an animal's physiology and environment interact to structure organismal stress tolerance. My current research program has an eye towards global climate change and addresses the general question of whether contemporary animals have the physiological flexibility necessary to buffer the unprecedented rates of environmental change, specifically their response to changes in multiple environmental variables. My research focuses mainly on aquatic organisms that are distributed along the California coast and estuaries (e.g. limpets, sea urchins, crabs, oysters and intertidal fishes), but extends to Antarctic fishes and aquaculture species.